LED Arrays for optogenetics and photochemistry in well plates


In-vivo optogenetics has become a standard technique for studying neural circuits in behaving mice, rats, and other animals. But as the number of light-activated proteins and other photoreactive tools has increased, this technology is now used frequently in multi-well plates and cell culture dishes for studies in tissue culture, bacteria, zebrafish, larvae, and other research models.

For these purposes, illumination systems need to be programmable to deliver pulses of light with the correct intensity, timing, and duration. They also need to be incubator compatible. Our LEDA series of well plate illuminators were designed to fill this role.

LED Array System 

  • LED Microplate Illumination
  • 96 well plate format—Customizable for different multi-well plates and layouts
  • Light delivery in your incubator: compatible with humid and high CO2 environments
  • Compact: 144 x 102 x 22 mm

You can read more about LEDA arrays here: Illuminating Cells in Microplates

Please see our optogenetic resource guide to help plan your experiments.

We use it routinely, use it every day. We  love working with it, it’s perfect for us.
It’s our high throughput system.

Dr. Jorine Eeftens

Brangwynne Lab, Princeton University

Sizes and Layouts

We frequently make arrays with different layouts and different sizes. Just let us know your requirements.

Available Wavelengths

  • White
  • UV 365 nm
  • Violet 405 nm, 420 nm
  • Blue 450 nm, 470 nm
  • Green 525 nm
  • Yellow 590 nm
  • Red 630 nm, 660 nm, 740 nm
  • Infra-Red 940 nm

Two-color arrays are also available for alternating stimulation and inhibition.

LED Array Drivers

The LAD drivers are used to power our arrays. Analog input can directly control pulse intensity and timing. The LAD can also be manually controlled to deliver constant illumination.

The LAD4 and LAD6 allow you to split a 96 well plate into 4 or 6 sectors and illuminate each sector independently.

Pulse Generator for Optogenetics

The STOmk-2 is a pulse generator developed specifically for optogenetics. By connecting the STOmk-2 to a LAD, you can control the timing and intensity of light stimulation via 0-5V (TTL) pulses. 4 and 6 channel pulse generators are also available.

Currently being used to study

  • Stem cell (iPSC) differentiation
  • Developmental biology 
  • Molecular biology – receptor directed protein expression (via Cry2 activation)
  • CRISPR/Cas9 gene modification
  • Oncology 
  • Ophthalmology & ophthalmologic drug development
  • Photostimulation and bleaching of proteins
  • Channelopathies such as epilepsy, and arrhythmias.
  • Photopharmacology
  • Photo-uncaging
  • Photoswitching
  • Creation of photoswitchable kinase inhibitors
  • Development of Photodynamic therapies
  • Photochemistry

Please see our optogenetic resource guide to help plan your experiments.


Duran Corbera, A., Catena, J., Otero Viñas, M., Llebaria, A., & Rovira, X. (2020). Photoswitchable antagonists for a precise spatiotemporal control of β2-adrenoceptors. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry.

Zhu, L., Richardson, T. M., Wacheul, L., Wei, M. T., Feric, M., Whitney, G., … & Brangwynne, C. P. (2019).  Controlling the material properties and rRNA processing function of the nucleolus using light. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences116(35), 17330-17335.

Westergard, T., McAvoy, K., Russell, K., Wen, X., Pang, Y., Morris, B., … & Haeusler, A. (2019).  Repeat‐associated non‐AUG translation in C9orf72‐ALS/FTD is driven by neuronal excitation and stress. EMBO molecular medicine11(2), e9423.

For a complete list of publications visit this page.

Frequently Asked Questions

Where can I find out more about how to plan my optogenetics experiment?

Please see our Optogenetics Resource Guide, where we have shared some of the many resources our customers have found useful for planning their optogenetics projects.

How long will it take for me to receive my order?
Normally the lead time will be 1 month.
What colors are available for the array?

White,  UV 365 nm, V (violet 405 nm), 405 nm, 420 nm, B (Blue 470 nm), G (Green 525 nm), Y (Yellow 590 nm), R (Red 630 nm), 660 nm, 740 nm, 850 nm, I (Infrared 940 nm), please ask for others.

What is the output for the array?

Output is continuously adjustable, the maximum irradiance varies for each color. The light power starts from zero and has step-less regulation.

You can control the power using the knob on the front panel of the LAD driver, or vary the voltage of an analog trigger pulse. Please see the manual for detailed information or ask Amuza.

Led Array Output

Maximum Output


Duty Cycle




380 nm <20% 1.4 140.2 0.14
380 nm continuous 0.5 45.5 0.05
400 nm <20% 1.9 193.2 0.19
400 nm continuous 0.7 72.0 0.07
420 nm <20% 1.1 106.1 0.11
420 nm continuous 0.5 45.5 0.05
450 nm <20% 1.8 178.0 0.18
470 nm <20% 1.5 151.5 0.15
470 nm continuous 0.7 68.2 0.07
530 nm <20% 0.9 85.2 0.09
530 nm continuous 0.5 47.3 0.05
590 nm <20% 0.4 43.6 0.04
590 nm continuous 0.3 32.2 0.03
630 nm <20% 1.5 147.7 0.15
630 nm continuous 0.8 75.8 0.08
660 nm <20% 1.4 140.2 0.14
660 nm continuous 0.8 83.3 0.08
940 nm <20% 1.4 136.4 0.14
940 nm continuous 0.7 68.2 0.07
What are the dimensions of the LEDA-X array?
144 x 100 x 16 mm.
Do you know if the light power is uniform between and within each well in the 96 well plate? Most LEDs have a cone-like spread, so I was wondering if the cone covered the full surface of cells in each well.

Our LEDs have a quite wide-spreading angle (120 degrees), and so cover the full surface of each well in a 96 plate.

Are the arrays calibrated so all LEDs have the same power?
The typical light power variability between LEDs is about 10%.

What is the maximum voltage output of the LED Array Driver?
The maximum voltage of LAD-1 is 13.5V.
What is the length of the cable that connects the array to the driver?
2 meters, please let us know if you need longer cables.
Can we split the signal from one channel of the STO so that it controls 2 channels on the LAD4?
Yes. Just let us know and we will include the appropriate cable.
The VTS-4 can also be used to control the LAD4, correct?
VTS4 can only output 5V TTL, so you can control the stimulation timing, but you cannot modulate the intensity. Power can only be controlled by the knob on LAD-1 in this case.